International Science Index

5
10003719
Seismic Fragility Assessment of Continuous Integral Bridge Frames with Variable Expansion Joint Clearances
Abstract:
Fragility analysis is an effective tool for the seismic vulnerability assessment of civil structures in the last several years. The design of the expansion joints according to various bridge design codes is almost inconsistent, and only a few studies have focused on this problem so far. In this study, the influence of the expansion joint clearances between the girder ends and the abutment backwalls on the seismic fragility assessment of continuous integral bridge frames is investigated. The gaps (ranging from 60 mm, 150 mm, 250 mm and 350 mm) are designed by following two different bridge design code specifications, namely, Caltrans and Eurocode 8-2. Five bridge models are analyzed and compared. The first bridge model serves as a reference. This model uses three-dimensional reinforced concrete fiber beam-column elements with simplified supports at both ends of the girder. The other four models also employ reinforced concrete fiber beam-column elements but include the abutment backfill stiffness and four different gap values. The nonlinear time history analysis is performed. The artificial ground motion sets, which have the peak ground accelerations (PGAs) ranging from 0.1 g to 1.0 g with an increment of 0.05 g, are taken as input. The soil-structure interaction and the P-Δ effects are also included in the analysis. The component fragility curves in terms of the curvature ductility demand to the capacity ratio of the piers and the displacement demand to the capacity ratio of the abutment sliding bearings are established and compared. The system fragility curves are then obtained by combining the component fragility curves. Our results show that in the component fragility analysis, the reference bridge model exhibits a severe vulnerability compared to that of other sophisticated bridge models for all damage states. In the system fragility analysis, the reference curves illustrate a smaller damage probability in the earlier PGA ranges for the first three damage states, they then show a higher fragility compared to other curves in the larger PGA levels. In the fourth damage state, the reference curve has the smallest vulnerability. In both the component and the system fragility analysis, the same trend is found that the bridge models with smaller clearances exhibit a smaller fragility compared to that with larger openings. However, the bridge model with a maximum clearance still induces a minimum pounding force effect.
Paper Detail
769
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4
10005983
Dynamic Active Earth Pressure on Flexible Cantilever Retaining Wall
Abstract:
Evaluation of dynamic earth pressure on retaining wall is a topic of primary importance. In present paper, dynamic active earth pressure and displacement of flexible cantilever retaining wall has been evaluated analytically using 2-DOF mass-spring-dashpot model by incorporating both wall and backfill properties. The effect of wall flexibility on dynamic active earth pressure and wall displacement are studied and presented in graphical form. The obtained results are then compared with the various conventional methods, experimental analysis and also with PLAXIS analysis. It is observed that the dynamic active earth pressure decreases with increase in the wall flexibility while wall displacement increases linearly with flexibility of the wall. The results obtained by proposed 2-DOF analytical model are found to be more realistic and economical.
Paper Detail
330
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3
10001775
Evaluation of Minimization of Moment Ratio Method by Physical Modeling
Abstract:
Under active stress conditions, a rigid cantilever retaining wall tends to rotate about a pivot point located within the embedded depth of the wall. For purely granular and cohesive soils, a methodology was previously reported called minimization of moment ratio to determine the location of the pivot point of rotation. The usage of this new methodology is to estimate the rotational stability safety factor. Moreover, the degree of improvement required in a backfill to get a desired safety factor can be estimated by the concept of the shear strength demand. In this article, the accuracy of this method for another type of cantilever walls called Contiguous Bored Pile (CBP) retaining wall is evaluated by using physical modeling technique. Based on observations, the results of moment ratio minimization method are in good agreement with the results of the carried out physical modeling.
Paper Detail
761
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2
8
Evaluating per-user Fairness of Goal-Oriented Parallel Computer Job Scheduling Policies
Abstract:
Fair share objective has been included into the goaloriented parallel computer job scheduling policy recently. However, the previous work only presented the overall scheduling performance. Thus, the per-user performance of the policy is still lacking. In this work, the details of per-user fair share performance under the Tradeoff-fs(Tx:avgX) policy will be further evaluated. A basic fair share priority backfill policy namely RelShare(1d) is also studied. The performance of all policies is collected using an event-driven simulator with three real job traces as input. The experimental results show that the high demand users are usually benefited under most policies because their jobs are large or they have a lot of jobs. In the large job case, one job executed may result in over-share during that period. In the other case, the jobs may be backfilled for performances. However, the users with a mixture of jobs may suffer because if the smaller jobs are executing the priority of the remaining jobs from the same user will be lower. Further analysis does not show any significant impact of users with a lot of jobs or users with a large runtime approximation error.
Paper Detail
781
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1
11522
Impact of Fair Share and its Configurations on Parallel Job Scheduling Algorithms
Abstract:

To provide a better understanding of fair share policies supported by current production schedulers and their impact on scheduling performance, A relative fair share policy supported in four well-known production job schedulers is evaluated in this study. The experimental results show that fair share indeed reduces heavy-demand users from dominating the system resources. However, the detailed per-user performance analysis show that some types of users may suffer unfairness under fair share, possibly due to priority mechanisms used by the current production schedulers. These users typically are not heavy-demands users but they have mixture of jobs that do not spread out.

Paper Detail
1449
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