International Science Index

International Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences

Muhammad`S Vision of Interaction with Supernatural Beings According to the Hadith in Comparison to Parallels of Other Cultures
Comparative studies of religion and ritual could contribute better understanding of human culture universalities. Belief in supernatural beings seems to be a common feature of the religion. A significant part of the Islamic concepts that concern supernatural beings is based on a tradition based on the Hadiths. They reflect, among other things, his ideas about a proper way to interact with supernatural beings. These ideas to a large extent follow from the pre-Islamic religious experience of the Arabs and had been reflected in a number of ritual actions. Some of those beliefs concern a particular function of clothing. For example, it is known that Muhammad was wrapped in clothes during the revelation of the Quran. The same thing was performed by pre-Islamic soothsayers (kāhin) and by rival opponents of Muhammad during their trances. Muhammad also turned the clothes inside out during religious rituals (prayer for rain). Besides these specific ways of clothing which prove the external similarity of Muhammad with the soothsayers and other people who claimed the connection with supernatural forces, the pre-Islamic soothsayers had another characteristic feature which is physical flaws. In this regard, it is worth to note Muhammad's so-called "Seal the Prophecy" (h̠ ātam an- nubūwwa) -protrusion or outgrowth on his back. Another interesting feature of Muhammad's behavior was his attitude to eating onion and garlic. In particular, the Prophet didn`t eat them and forbade people who had tasted these vegetables to enter mosques, until the smell ceases to be felt. The reason for this ban on eating onion and garlic is caused by a belief that the smell of these products prevents communication with otherworldly forces. The materials of the Hadith also suggest that Muhammad shared faith in the apotropical properties of water. Both of these ideas have parallels in other cultures of the world. Muhammad's actions supposed to provide an interaction with the supernatural beings are not accidental. They have parallels in the culture of pre-Islamic Arabia as well as in many past and present world cultures. The latter fact can be explained by the similarity of the universal human beliefs in supernatural beings and how they should be interacted with. Later a number of similar ideas shared by the Prophet Muhammad was legitimized by the Islamic tradition and formed the basis of popular Islamic rituals. Thus, these parallels emphasize the commonality of human notions of supernatural beings and also demonstrate the significance of the pre-Islamic cultural context in analyzing the genesis of Islamic religious beliefs.
Effects of Arts-Mediated Mother-Child Dyads Mindfulness-Based Intervention for Korean Children with ADHD: On Behaviors in Children and Subjective Psychological States in Mothers
The present study examined the effects of arts-mediated mother-child dyads mindfulness-based intervention for Korean children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and their mothers, on behaviors in children and subjective psychological states in mothers. Four elementary school boys with ADHD and their mothers participated in the study. Using a multiple baseline design across four mother-child dyads, data were collected on the target behaviors (disruptive behavior, on-task behavior, and compliance in class) in children using a 10-second partial interval recording system and on the subjective psychological states in mothers using four questionnaires (on perceived stress, burnout, mindfulness, and satisfaction with life). The intervention consisted of a) mindfulness training, b) mindfulness practice, and c) mindful management of body and feeling. The arts activities, making a coiled clay pot and Korean traditional music performance, were utilized to facilitate the environment to help each participant to understand the content and progress of the intervention program. The results showed that all four dyads showed improvement in adaptive behaviors in the children (increase in on-task behavior; decrease in disruptive behavior) and positive change in subjective psychological states in the mothers (increase in scores of mindfulness and satisfaction with life; decrease in scores of perceived stress and burnout). The changes in the children’s behaviors and in the mothers’ subjective psychological states were maintained when the intervention was drawn and generalized in novel settings. The results suggest that arts-mediated mother-child dyads mindfulness-based intervention would be a mutual benefiting strategy to support both children with ADHD and their mothers who experience diverse challenges in behavioral and psychological aspects.
Political Economy of Development Induced Re-Territorialization: A South African Uppercut
Land becomes a predominant constituent of transitional justice paradigm subsequent to the apartheid inspired land grabs and conflict induced forceful evictions in South Africa effecting land encroachment, expropriation, and alienation. In this pretext, post-Apartheid regime initiated land reconciliation measures which presume to overcome the politically appropriated historical injustices in conjunction with reconstructing transitional justice. As land grabs became one of the quintessential repercussions followed by ethnic cleansing in South Africa, it is prominent to study how land reconciliation becomes necessary in imparting transitional justice to the victims. The study also looks into the nature of developmental pattern after re- territorialization process in a post-conflict country like South Africa and, tries to look how re-territorialization process construed the functional distribution of income vis-a-vis income inequality in particular. Further the paper attempts to study how far land distribution and equal access as part of the land reconciliation process juxtaposed the principle of restitution. Research methodology applied is empirical followed by analytical research.
Issues and Challenges in Social Work Field Education: The Field Coordinator's Perspective
Understanding the role of social work in improving societal well-being cannot be separated from the place of field education, which is an integral aspect of social work education. Field learning provides students with knowledge and opportunities to experience solving issues in the field and giving them a clue of the practice situation. Despite being a crucial component in social work curriculum, field education occupies a large space in learning outcome, given the issues and challenges pertaining to its purpose and significance in the society. The drive of this paper is to provide insight on the specific ways in which field education has been conceived, realized and valued in the society. Emphasis is on the significance of field instruction; the link with classroom learning; and the structure of field experience in social work education. Given documented analysis and experience, this study intends to contribute to the development of social work curriculum, by analyzing the pattern, issues and challenges fronting the social work field education in the University of Benin, Nigeria.
Third Gender: The Conflict for Sexual Identity in India as Transgender
Third genders have a recorded history of more than 4,000 years. Asian countries have centuries-old histories of existence of gender-variant males who in the moderns times are labeled as 'transgender women'. India has a history of people with a wide range of transgender related identities, cultures, and experiences. People with such identities include Hijras. Aravanis, Kothis, Jogtas/Jogappas, and Shiv-Shakthis. Kama Sutra provides vivid description of sexual life of people with 'third nature' (Tritiya Prakriti). These identities have always been part of the broader culture and were treated with great respect in the past though only some are accorded such respect in the present. Educational Status: Educational status of the transgenders is very poor. This is the main reason fro their deprivation. Their dropout itself cannot be counted. No one will enquire about the reasons for the dropout and the resultant factors. No formal education for transgender is popular in Indian context. They are deprived from family and school environment, transgender discontinues their education and risk their future career opportunities. In most of the cases if there is one transgender student at the school, because of all the discrimination from the teachers and friends they need a company from their sect. This reveals that if there is one support for them to understand them, to love them automatically their study will continue without any issue. But in most of the cases, this situation is really absent from the life of a transgender. Ultimately, they will drop from the education. Social Status: The transgenders in India mostly in Kerala are socially and economically deprived. Because of the lack of education and dropout at their primary classes, more than 80 percent of them did not complete their SSLC itself. They face stigma and discrimination and therefore have fewer opportunities as compared to others. They are hardly educated as they are nor accepted by the society and therefore do not receive proper schooling. Even if they are enrolled in an educational institute, they face harassment and are bullied every day and are asked to leave the school or they drop out on their own. It is because of this that they take up begging and sex work. The amount of money they get from sex work is good enough fro them to buy their cloth and ornaments. There are groups of sex workers at the prime cities. They are forced into sex work which puts them at the highest risk of contracting HIV as they agree to unprotected sexual intercourse because they fear rejection or they want to affirm their gender through sex. Generally, they are considered as the ‘vectors’ of HIV in the society. Loneliness is the biggest mental disorder for them. There is a need for prepare an environment where transgender feels secure. Teacher and community people can play a significant role in inclusion. Gender identity is a very important factor for the success of each and every person. But due to this, there is marginalization in the transgenders.
Effectuating Theology of Culture: The Only Weapon to Confront 21st Century Global Godless Culture
This is an analytical paper on how to apply theology to the global godless culture. The paper will analyze and materialize theology of culture and come up with theo-cultural principles which will enable Christians to properly engage with today godless culture. If theology and daily life are in any way split apart, Christians will lose the authenticity essential to their calling. Living out godliness in the ungodly culture requires materializing theology into daily life. To do that has become an unbeatable challenge for Christians in 21st century with the overtaking in of global godless culture enforced by Information Technology resulting in rapid and chaotic change of global lifestyles wherein Christianity stands in danger of being swallowed up. Staying away from the culture will rob Christianity of its mission to witness and staying with and like it will rob Christianity of its effectiveness. Thus the question is how should today Christians apply theology to the culture wherein what are said to be sins in the Bible no longer look like sins? Should we forge an all-out war against it or should distance ourselves away from it? The extreme response to it could fruit Christian Jihadism on the right and the apathetic response would let it booming with no one attempting to stop it on the left. This paper calls for global Christians to essentially make theology a part of their daily lives to form a united global force to influence the godless global culture by influencing our own family and community.
Clothing Features of Greek Orthodox Woman Immigrants in Konya (Iconium)
When the immigration is considered, it has been found that communities were continuously influenced by the immigrations from the date of the emergence of mankind until the day. The political, social and economic reasons seen at the various periods caused the communities go to new places from where they have lived before. Immigrations have occurred as a result of unequal opportunities among communities, social exclusion and imposition, compulsory homeland emerging politically, exile and war. Immigration is a social tool that is defined as a geographical relocation of people from a housing unit (city, village etc.) to another to spend all or part of their future lives. Immigrations have an effect on the history of humanity directly or indirectly, revealing new dimensions for communities to evaluate the concept of homeland. With these immigrations, communities carried their cultural values to their new settlements leading to a new interaction process. With this interaction process both migrant and native community cultures were reshaped and richer cultural values emerged. The clothes of these communities are amongst the most important visual evidence of this rich cultural interaction. As a result of these immigrations, communities affected each other culture’s clothing mutually and they started adding features of other cultures to the garments of its own, resulting new clothing cultures in time. The cultural and historical differences between these communities are seem to be the most influential factors of keeping the clothing cultures of the people alive. The most important and tragic of these immigrations took place after the Turkish War of Independence that was fought against Greece in 1922. The concept of forced immigration was a result of Lausanne Peace Treaty, which was signed between Turkish and Greek governments on 30th January 1923. As a result Greek Orthodoxes, who lived in Turkey (Anatolia and Thrace) and Muslim Turks, who lived in Greece were forced to immigrate. In this study, clothing features of Greek Orthodox woman immigrants who emigrated from Turkey to Greece in the period of the ‘1923 Greek-Turkish Population Exchange’ are aimed to be examined. In the study using the descriptive research method, before the ‘1923 Greek-Turkish Population Exchange’, the clothings belong to Greek Orthodox woman immigrants who lived in ‘Konya (Iconium)’ region in the Ottoman Empire, are discussed. In the study that is based on two different clothings belonging to ‘Konya (Iconium)’ region in the clothing collection archive at the ‘National Historical Museum’ in Greece, clothings of the Greek Orthodox woman immigrants are discussed with cultural norms, beliefs, values as well as in terms of form, ornamentation and dressing styles. Technical drawings are provided demonstrating formal features of the clothing parts that formed clothing integrity and their properties are described with the use of related literature in this study. This study is of importance that that it contains Greek Orthodox refugees’ clothings that are found in the clothing collection archive at the ‘National Historical Museum’ in Greece reflecting the cultural identities, providing information and documentation on the clothing features of the ‘1923 Greek-Turkish Population Exchange’.
The Power of Inferences and Assumptions: Using a Humanities Education Approach to Help Students Learn to Think Critically
A four-step ‘humanities’ thought model has been used in an interdisciplinary course for almost two decades and has been proven to aid in student abilities to become more inclusive in their world view. Lack of tolerance for ambiguity can interfere with this progression so we developed an assignment that seems to have assisted students in developing more tolerance for ambiguity and, therefore, opened them up to make more progress on the critical thought model. A four-step critical thought model (built from a humanities education approach) is used in an interdisciplinary course on prejudice, discrimination, and hate in an effort to minimize egocentrism and promote sociocentrism in college students. A fundamental barrier to this progression is a lack of tolerance for ambiguity. The approach to the course is built on the assumption that Tolerance for Ambiguity (characterized by a dislike of uncertain, ambiguous or situations in which expected behaviors are uncertain, will like serve as a barrier (if tolerance is low) or facilitator (if tolerance is high) of active ‘engagement’ with assignments. Given that active engagement with course assignments would be necessary to promote an increase in critical thought and the degree of multicultural attitude change, tolerance for ambiguity inhibits critical thinking and, ultimately multicultural attitude change. As expected, those students showing the least amount of decrease (or even an increase) in intolerance across the semester, earned lower grades in the course than those students who showed a significant decrease in intolerance, t(1,19) = 4.659, p < .001. Students who demonstrated the most change in their Tolerance for Ambiguity (showed an increasing ability to tolerate ambiguity) earned the highest grades in the course. This is, especially, significant because faculty did not know student scores on this measure until after all assignments had been graded and course grades assigned. An assignment designed to assist students in making their assumption and inferences processes visible so they could be explored, was implemented with the goal of this exploration then promoting more tolerance for ambiguity, which, as already outlined, promotes critical thought. The assignment offers students two options and then requires them to explore what they have learned about inferences and/or assumptions This presentation outlines the assignment and demonstrates the humanities model, what students learn from particular assignments and how it fosters a change in Tolerance for Ambiguity which, serves as the foundational component of critical thinking.
Implicit Bias as One Obstacle to Gender Equity
Today, there is increased attention to the role of social perceptions in the selection, hiring, and management of employees and the evaluation and promotion of students. In some contexts, where women or members of certain social groups have been historically underrepresented there is evidence that these perceptions reflect the implicit biases people harbor. Research in the social and psychological sciences reveals that implicit biases against women unfairly disadvantage them in academic and work settings. This presentation will provide an overview of the current state of knowledge on an implicit bias as well as the problems associated with it. How employers, educators and other evaluators can inoculate themselves from the pernicious effects of these biases will be considered.
A Qualitative Investigation into Street Art in an Indonesian City
Introduction: This paper uses the work of Deleuze and Guattari to consider the street art practice of youth in the Indonesian city of Yogyakarta, a hub of arts and culture in Central Java. Around the world young people have taken to city streets to populate the new informal exhibition spaces outside the galleries of official art institutions. However, rarely is the focus outside the urban metropolis of the ‘Global North.' This paper looks at these practices in a ‘Global South’ Asian context. Space and place are concepts central to understanding youth cultural expression as it emerges on the streets. Deleuze and Guattari’s notion of assemblage enriches understanding of this complex spatial and creative relationship. Yogyakarta street art combines global patterns and motifs with local meanings, symbolism, and language to express local youth voices that convey a unique sense of place on the world stage. Street art has developed as a global urban youth art movement and is theorised as a way in which marginalised young people reclaim urban space for themselves. Methodologies: This study utilised a variety of qualitative methodologies to collect and analyse data. This project took a multi-method approach to data collection, incorporating the qualitative social research methods of ethnography, nongkrong (deep hanging out), participatory action research, online research, in-depth interviews and focus group discussions. Both interviews and focus groups employed photo-elicitation methodology to stimulate rich data gathering. To analyse collected data, rhizoanalytic approaches incorporating discourse analysis and visual analysis were utilised. Street art practice is a fluid and shifting phenomenon, adding to the complexity of inquiry sites. A qualitative approach to data collection and analysis was the most appropriate way to map the components of the street art assemblage and to draw out complexities of this youth cultural practice in Yogyakarta. Major Findings: The rhizoanalytic approach devised for this study proved a useful way of examining in the street art assemblage. It illustrated the ways in which the street art assemblage is constructed. Especially the interaction of inspiration, materials, creative techniques, audiences, and spaces operate in the creations of artworks. The study also exposed the generational tensions between the senior arts practitioners, the established art world, and the young artists. Conclusion: In summary, within the spatial processes of the city, street art is inextricably linked with its audience, its striving artistic community and everyday life in the smooth rather than the striated worlds of the state and the official art world. In this way, the anarchic rhizomatic art practice of nomadic urban street crews can be described not only as ‘becoming-artist’ but as constituting ‘nomos’, a way of arranging elements which are not dependent on a structured, hierarchical organisation practice. The site, streets, crews, neighbourhood and the passers by can all be examined with the concept of assemblage. The assemblage effectively brings into focus the complexity, dynamism, and flows of desire that is a feature of street art practice by young people in Yogyakarta.
A Dynamic System Analysis of the Network Degree of Preferential Attachment Models
Preferential attachment models explain the formation of power law degree distributions based on two key assumptions: the set of nodes continuously grows through the addition of new nodes and highly connected nodes tend to receive more connections from new nodes. A widely used preferential attachment model is the Barabasi-Albert model, which characterizes the evolution of the number of new nodes and the number of new edges as linear growth processes (i.e., a new node establishes a fixed number of new edges every time step). A recent extension to the model considers a more realistic scenario where the growth of the set of edges follows a distribution with time-varying nonlinear parameters. This work shows that the complementary cumulative degree distribution for the linear and nonlinear growth of edges can be approximated by infinite dimensional time-varying linear systems. For the linear case, the invariance of the convergent set of the degree distribution is proved, and stability properties of the average degree are derived. Finally, simulations illustrate the theoretical results.
'Typical' Criminals: A Schutzian Influenced Theoretical Framework Exploring Type and Stereotype Formation
The way the human mind interprets and comprehends the world it occupies has long been a topic of discussion amongst philosophers and phenomenologists. This paper will focus predominantly on the ideologies espoused by the phenomenologist Alfred Schutz and will investigate how we attribute meaning to an event through the process of typification, and the production and usage of ‘types' and ‘stereotypes.' This paper will then discuss how subjective ideologies innate within us result in unique and subjective decision outcomes, based on a phenomenologically influenced theoretical framework which will illustrate how we form ‘types’ in order to ‘typecast’ and form judgements of everything and everyone we experience. The framework used will be founded in theory espoused by Alfred Schutz, and will review the different types of knowledge we rely on innately to inform our judgements, the relevance we attribute to the information which we acquire, and how we consciously and unconsciously apply this framework to everyday situations. An assessment will then be made of the potential impact that these subjective meaning structures can present when dispensing justice in criminal courts. This paper will investigate how these subjective meaning structures can influence our consciousness on both a conscious and unconscious level, and how this could potentially result in bias judicial outcomes due to negative ‘types’ or ‘stereotypes.' This paper will ultimately illustrate that we unconsciously and unreflexively use pre-formed types and stereotypes to inform our judgements and give meaning to what we have just experienced.
The Effectiveness and the Factors Affect Farmer’s Adoption of Technological Innovation Citrus Gerga Lebong in Bengkulu Indonesia
The effectiveness of agricultural extension is determined by the component in the agricultural extension system among others are agricultural extension methods. Effective methods should be selected and defined based on the characteristics of the target, the resources, the materials, and the objectives to be achieved. Citrus agribusiness development in Lebong is certainly supported by the role of stakeholders and citrus farmers, as well as the proper dissemination methods. Adoption in the extension process substantially can be interpreted as the changes of behavior process such as knowledge (cognitive), attitudes (affective), and skill (psycho-motoric) in a person after receiving "innovation" from extension submitted by target communities. Knowledge and perception are needed as a first step in adopting a innovation, especially of citrus agribusiness development in Lebong. The process of Specific technology adoption is influenced by internal factors and farmer perceptions of technological innovation. Internal factors such as formal education, experience trying to farm, owned land, production farm goods. The output of this study: 1) to analyze the effectiveness of field trial methods in improving cognitive and affective farmers; 2) Knowing the relationship of adoption level and knowledge of farmers; 3) to analyze the factors that influence farmers' adoption of citrus technology innovation. The method of this study is through the survey to 40 respondents in Rimbo Pengadang Sub District, Lebong District in 2014. Analyzing data is done by descriptive and statistical parametric (multiple linear functions). The results showed that: 1) Field trip method is effective to improve the farmer knowledge (23,17% ) and positively affect the farmer attitude; 2) the knowledge level of PTKJS innovation farmers "positively and very closely related".; 3) the factors that influence the level of farmers' adoption are internal factors (education, knowledge, and the intensity of training), and external factors respondents (distance from the house to the garden and from the house to production facilities shop).
Agricultural Education by Media in Yogyakarta, Indonesia
Education in agriculture is very significant in a way that it can support farmers to improve their business. This can be done through certain media, such as printed, audio, and audio-visual media. To find out the effects of the media toward the knowledge, attitude, and motivation of farmers in order to adopt innovation, the study was conducted on 342 farmers, randomly selected from 12 farmer-groups, in the districts of Sleman and Bantul, Special Region of Yogyakarta Province. The study started from October 2014 to November 2015 by interviewing the respondents using a questionnaire which included 20 questions on knowledge, 20 questions on attitude, and 20 questions on adopting motivation. The data for the attitude and the motivation were processed into Likert scale, then it was tested for validity and reliability. Differences in the levels of knowledge, attitude, and motivation were tested by Analysis of Variants (ANOVA). The results show that printed, audio, and audio-visual media gave different impact to the farmers. First, printed media, to be specific comic, was the most effective media to raise the adopting motivation of agricultural innovation. Second, audio media in interactive dialogue was effective to increase the knowledge of the farmers. Finally, audio-visual media, especially theatrical play, was the most effective way to improve the attitude of farmers.
Culturally Diverse Working Teams in Finnish and Italian Oil and Gas Industry: Intersecting Differences in Organizational and Employee Interactions
The aim of the research is to study diversity issues and gender equality in the Finnish and Italian oil and gas companies. Particular attention is given to the effects on the organization’s and employees’ interactions resulting from intersecting social categories. The study is aimed to be settled in companies where social inequalities and diversity management problematics are present. Consequently, ten semi-structured interviews with key managers from the companies and four focus groups composed of culturally diverse employees aim to depict and analyze the situation from both points of view. Social discourse and intersectionality are employed as the analysis methods. Trainings, workshops, and suggestions are to be offered in the required situations.
Women Doing Leadership in Higher Education: Drawing on Individual Experiences to Analyse On-Going Gender Inequality in the Sector
Gender issues in higher education continue to represent a complex issue as institutions grapple with the role that organisations can play in combatting inequality. Schemes like Athena SWAN and the Aurora leadership programme in the UK context are attempting to tackle some of the issues around representation and the recognition of women in the sector. This paper is the first of its kind in reporting findings from a mixed-methods longitudinal study on both professional services and academic women in higher education in the UK. Online surveys have been completed by over 2,000 women in the sector. The qualitative elements include interviews with women and their mentors, and diaries with a select group of women. So far results have shown that contrary to the stereotype of women lacking leadership skills or having no desire to go into higher roles, women in the sector consistently assessed their leadership abilities positively, especially but not only regarding interpersonal interaction and facilitation. Over 80% of women agreed that they felt confident about putting themselves forward for positions of responsibility at work. However, qualitative data shows that confidence remains a salient term for how women talk about the challenges they have faced at work. This suggests that the work needed to challenge systemic gender issues requires action to be driven above the individual level. Overall, academics reported more negative experiences than professional services staff. Similarly BAME women’s responses are more negative. Therefore, the study offers some information on the differential experiences of women. In conclusion, women in higher education are undertaking considerable ‘below the radar’ leadership activities in what they perceive to be a somewhat inhospitable hostile workplace culture. The significant amount of effort expended in the sector is affecting slow, partial impacts on gender inequalities.
Gendered Success and Strategies for Change in Turkish Universities
This paper presents an overview of the legislative context for gender equality in Turkey. The conventional interpretation of the rise in women's education and senior management in Turkey often attributes it to secular ideology and Westernizing reforms of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk. As a secular Muslim country, Turkey creates its own framework for gender mainstreaming. This case study is of large public university in Turkey whose female Vice-Rector is responsible for gender equity policy and senior management are committed to increasing the representation of women as full professors and as senior academic managers. Seven of the 17 faculties have women deans (41.2 %), four of the Vocational Schools have women directors (30.7 %), and two of the Graduate Schools have women directors (15.4 %). In addition, the Rector assigned the Director of the Women’s Studies Centre to the Faculty of Political Sciences as Dean. Currently, 41.9 % of all academics and 40.8% of all professors are women at the case study university. The university has a Gender Action Plan (GEAP) (2013-2016) which requires gender awareness in every academic unit and at managerial level. The paper analyses the development and implementation of the institution’s GEAP and its impact on the high representation of women in senior management/ professoriate, and the Women’s Studies Research Centre as a change agent. According to the findings of this paper, increased support from the university such as mentoring for leadership roles, improved childcare/elderly care facilities, positive segregation and quotas can increase the number of female managers.
The Real-Time Video Conference as a Working Practice in Medial Social Work
Video conferencing is a useful technology for real-time connection between a professional and a client. In Finland, the Hospital District of Helsinki and Uusimaa (later HUS) the social workers are starting to use a real-time video conferencing as a new working practice in medical social work. The method is new in the field of social work. The aim of implementation of the new practice is to provide an optional service method. It can be used as a single working method, or it can be used side by side with the traditional face to face meetings. The method helps eliminate distance barriers and improves access to services for people who might be in other hand danger to fall out from the service system, for example, clients with social phobias or clients who live far from the services. The practice can also be useful among the officials and communicate with the clients' relatives. Video conferencing is suitable also for consult work and supervision. In practice, the client and the social worker are in real-time connection via the Internet. It is very important that the connection in safe, functional and easy to use. The social worker and the client needs a computer or laptop, camera, a speaker and the service link (for example A proper working place is needed and also the client needs one. When the appointment is agreed, the social worker sends an email to the client with the information link. The client clicks the link and gets to the virtual waiting room, and the worker opens the line. It is important that the service is suitable for the client, that she or he has given his/ hers approval. The worker evaluates the suitability. It can be beneficial that there is a prior face to face meeting before starting video conferencing. This is due to the evaluation process but also to clarify and to discuss about the method with the client. It is also important that the client has the possibility to have face to face meetings in case she or he feels the need to do so. The younger clients may be more familiar to the mobile devices than elderly ones, and social workers may have some concerns about the new method. The medical records are made by the normal policy, and the use is free of charge. The real-time video conferencing working practice is expanding at the same time with the self-help programs in the Finnish Internet site called “The Mental Health House” that includes various self-help programs. The site and the use of video conference working practice are actively expanding in HUS Psychiatry. The real- time video conference working practice follows the instructions of telecommunication given by the Valvira (national agency operating under the Ministry of Social Affairs and Health). The instructions include the topics about the confidentiality and secrecy policy and also information security and privacy protection.
Re-Entry Cultural Adaptation of Foreign-Educated Academics at Chinese Universities
Every year more than half a million Chinese students go overseas to pursue their studies and over seventy percent of them return to find employment in the Chinese labour market. A large number of these foreign-educated returnees work at Chinese universities. Overseas study and acculturation in host countries have transformed these students who thus have developed their new identities, new habits, and new behaviour, which become problematic when they return to their home country. They experience re-entry culture shock, which is often under-researched. This study adopted a qualitative research approach to investigate the re-entry challenges facing returnees working at Chinese universities. Fifteen academics from four universities in Yunnan Province, China, participated in the semi-structured interviews in 2017. The study has found that these foreign-educated returnees, mostly from OECD countries, have played a very important role in internationalising and transforming Chinese universities, developing new academic programmes, lifting research standards, introducing Western educational philosophies and pedagogical practices, and improving university management systems. However, they met with many challenges in applying their knowledge, skills, expertise acquired in the West in the Chinese educational context. Preferential policies and treatments created a sense of inequality, jealousy, and animosity among non-returnee colleagues. Mismatched expectations between returnees and employers led to disappointment and frustration. They experienced difficulties dealing with the complexity of guanxi (social networking and relationship management), low salaries, high living expenses, heavy teaching loads, lack of support for research, high pressure for publication, and heavy-handed administrative bureaucracy. Re-adapting to home country’s organisational culture, and integrating into Chinese university’s community of practice became a challenge to returned academics who were ambitious to bring positive changes to teaching and research in Chinese universities. It is suggested that Chinese universities need to develop policies and take actions to address the concerns of returnee academics to make full use of professionalism and expertise to help Chinese universities to achieve their goals of internationalization in teaching, research and management.
An Examination of the Relationship between the Five Stages of the Yogacara Path to Enlightenment and the Ten Ox-Herding Pictures
This study proposed to compare and analyse the five stages of cultivating the Yogâcāra path and the spiritual journey in the Ten Ox-Herding Pictures. To achieve this, the study investigated the core concepts and practice methods of the two approaches and analysed their relations from the literature reviewed. The results showed that the end goal of the two approaches is the same, the attainment of Buddhahood, with the two having common characteristics including the practice of being aware of the impermanent and non-self, and the fulfilling benefit of sentient beings. The results suggest that our Buddhist practice system needs to sincerely consider the realistic ways by which one can help people in agony in contemporary society, not by emphasizing on the enlightenment through a specific practice way for all people, but by tailored practice methods based on each one's faculties in understanding Buddhism.
Representations of Germanophobia during the German Unification and the Euro Crisis: A Comparative Study in the Portuguese Press
The Reunification of Germany, in 1990, was not received with great enthusiasm by other European countries. On the contrary, the union of the two German states was accompanied by great concern towards its possible political and economic consequences. The Europeans had not forgotten Germany’s responsibility in the outbreak of the Second World War, and many feared that this new nation would again long for a hegemonic role. During the following years, however, the notion of a threatening Germany faded away, giving place to a description of Germany as an economic giant but a political dwarf. Twenty years after the Reunification, with the outbreak of the financial crisis, Germany conquered a key and powerful position at the heart of Europe and Germanophobia started to gain ground again. The present study has been based on the survey, selection and critical analysis of news reporting, opinion articles, interviews and editorials, published in the weekly Expresso and the daily Público, during two historical moments: the Reunification of Germany in 1990 and the European Crisis, between 2008 and 2015. The findings of this study will show that Germany’s growing influence over the current European economic and political scene woke up old 'demons' that had been 'sleeping' since 1990.
Decision Making Heuristics in an Agent-Based Simulation: Investigating the Interaction of Model Complexity and Environmental Features in Determining Decision Making Performance
Heuristics are decision-making strategies that ignore a part of the present information. Humans and other animals are known to use heuristics extensively. In the literature, heuristics are shown to sometimes perform as well as or even better than more information-heavy decision-making methods. Consequently, when and where making heuristic decisions are more advantageous compared to more information-heavy methods of decision making is an important question. The present study uses an agent-based model to investigate the conditions under which heuristic decision making is evolutionarily advantageous. In the model, the agents encounter other agents in a game theoretical setting and make gains or incur losses according to the strategies of both parties. Being able to guess the strategy of an opponent is a very valuable capability for the agents. As agents encounter other agents, they learn how to predict the strategy of the opponent, based on certain observable features. While learning how to predict the strategy of an opponent, some agents use a simple model (corresponding to a heuristic decision-making model), whereas others use a more complex model (which includes more parameters). The agents procreate and contribute to the next generation in proportion to their success; therefore a decision-making model that is advantageous tends to represent much more in the later generations, allowing a comparison of different decision-making methods in a given environment. The simulations demonstrate how the complexity of the decision-making model interacts with environmental features (e. g. information quality, payoff structure, the amount of observations) in determining agents' performance. They also show that agent-based models can be a useful tool in understanding the relationship between decision-making environment and the decision-making model.
Empirical Study of Innovative Development of Shenzhen Creative Industries Based on Triple Helix Theory
In order to understand how cultural innovation occurs, this paper explores the interaction in Shenzhen of China between universities, creative industries, and government in creative economic using the Triple Helix framework. During the past two decades, Triple Helix has been recognized as a new theory of innovation to inform and guide policy-making in national and regional development. Universities and governments around the world, especially in developing countries, have taken actions to strengthen connections with creative industries to develop regional economies. To date research based on the Triple Helix model has focused primarily on Science and Technology collaborations, largely ignoring other fields. Hence, there is an opportunity for work to be done in seeking to better understand how the Triple Helix framework might apply in the field of creative industries and what knowledge might be gleaned from such an undertaking. Since the late 1990s, the concept of ‘creative industries’ has been introduced as policy and academic discourse. The development of creative industries policy by city agencies has improved city wealth creation and economic capital. It claims to generate a ‘new economy’ of enterprise dynamics and activities for urban renewal through the arts and digital media, via knowledge transfer in knowledge-based economies. Creative industries also involve commercial inputs to the creative economy, to dynamically reshape the city into an innovative culture. In particular, this paper will concentrate on creative spaces (incubators, digital tech parks, maker spaces, art hubs) where academic, industry and government interact. China has sought to enhance the brand of their manufacturing industry in cultural policy. It aims to transfer the image of ‘Made in China’ to ‘Created in China’ as well as to give Chinese brands more international competitiveness in a global economy. Shenzhen is a notable example in China as an international knowledge-based city following this path. In 2009, the Shenzhen Municipal Government proposed the city slogan ‘Build a Leading Cultural City”’ to show the ambition of government’s strong will to develop Shenzhen’s cultural capacity and creativity. The vision of Shenzhen is to become a cultural innovation center, a regional cultural center and an international cultural city. However, there has been a lack of attention to the triple helix interactions in the creative industries in China. In particular, there is limited knowledge about how interactions in creative spaces co-location within triple helix networks significantly influence city based innovation. That is, the roles of participating institutions need to be better understood. Thus, this paper discusses the interplay between university, creative industries and government in Shenzhen. Secondary analysis and documentary analysis will be used as methods in an effort to practically ground and illustrate this theoretical framework. Furthermore, this paper explores how are creative spaces being used to implement Triple Helix in creative industries. In particular, the new combination of resources generated from the synthesized consolidation and interactions through the institutions. This study will thus provide an innovative lens to understand the components, relationships and functions that exist within creative spaces by applying Triple Helix framework to the creative industries.
Perception of Reproductive Age Group Females of a Central University in India about Body Image
Background: Self-perception of an individual about own body has a strong influence on their food preference and thereby on their nutritional status. Body image is gaining importance in social theory. Globally, women in particular seem to be favour of one ideal body type (Viz A slim, tall and perfectly proportionate body). Beauty and body image ideals among research scholars can play a significant influence on their own actions. Objectives: 1) To assess perception of study subjects about body image; 2)To analyze the relationship between body image and residential status of study subjects. Material and Method: 176 female research scholars of Banaras Hindu University were selected through multistage sampling. They were interviewed with pre designed and pre-tested proforma about area of residence and perception about body image. Result: As much as 86.4% subjects were happy with the way they looked whereas 83.0% subjects considered themselves as attractive. In case of 13.6%, 27.3%, 31.8%, 14.2% and 13.1% subjects, best-described body shapes were thin, normal, curvy, athletic and overweight, respectively. Area of residence was significantly (p
Black Bodies Matter: The Contemporary Manifestation of Saartjie Baartman
The purpose of this study is to understand the perception of historical figure Saartjie 'Sara/Sarah' Baartman from a cross cultural perspective of black women in the United States and black women in South Africa. Semi-structured interviews (n = 30) uncover that many women in both countries did not have an accurate representation, recollection, or have been exposed to the story of Baartman. Nonetheless, those who were familiar with Baartman’s story, those participants compared her to modern examples of black women who are showcased in a contemporary familiarity. The women are described by participants as women who reveal their bodies in a sexualized manner and have the curves that are similar to Baartman’s historic figure. This comparison emphasized a connection to popular images of black women who represent the curvaceous ideal. Findings contribute to social comparison theory by providing a lens for examining black women’s body image.
Child Maltreatment across the Lifespan: Impacts on Caregiving to Aging Parents
This qualitative study aims to explore whether child maltreatment affected the adult child-parent relationship and the experience of caregiving to aging parents in adulthood. It also focuses on the process which adult children overcame and adjusted with the experience of child maltreatment so that they became willing to take care of their parents in later life. In-depth interviews with six adult children with experience of physical or psychological violence by their parents in childhood were conducted. The result shows that participants were facing anxiety, grumble, alienation, yearning, and struggles towards the adult child-parent relationship. It also indicates that adult children were willing to provide care and support to their aging parents to some extent but were associated with resistance and struggled among the negative effects on parent-child relationship, caring role and responsibility, and filial piety in Chinese context. Further, the findings suggest that such adult child’s willingness and motivation of caregiving to aging parents is changeable, specifically through personal growth, improvement on adult child-parent relationship, support from significant others, increasing self-awareness and knowledge on trauma healing and recovery, and experiencing forgiveness, which help adult children to transform their negative experience to new meanings of life. In view of the long-term impacts of child maltreatment across the lifespan, especially on the aspects of adult child-parent relationship and intergenerational caregiving to aging parents, implications on family counselling and education, social service, and social policy, and professional training addressed at families with experience of child maltreatment are also highlighted in this study.
Scattered Places in Stories Singularity and Pattern in Geographic Information
Increased knowledge about the nature of place and the conditions under which space becomes place is a key factor for better urban planning and place-making. Although there is a broad consensus on the relevance of this knowledge, difficulties remain in relating the theoretical framework about place and urban management. Issues related to representation of places are among the greatest obstacles to overcome this gap. With this critical discussion, based on literature review, we intended to explore, in a common framework for geographical analysis, the potential of stories to spell out place meanings, bringing together qualitative text analysis and text mining in order to capture and represent the singularity contained in each person's life history, and the patterns of social processes that shape places. The development of this reasoning is based on the extensive geographical thought about place, and in the theoretical advances in the field of Geographic Information Science (GISc).
Navigating the Cacophony of Human Rights Claims and Chains of Fraud in Nigeria: The Anti-Corruption War Perspective
Since the Buhari administration came to power, it has gained the people’s confidence with its anti-corruption efforts. Making culprits account for their past unlawful deeds, in a very determined and aggressive manner ever witnessed in the nation’s political history, generates different reactions among Nigerians. However, some questions remain pertinent to this study: Are Nigerians really advocating persecution or prosecution in respect of the graft suspects? Do they want conviction without being convinced? Is their outburst propelled by emotions and revengeful anticipation of having suspected looters of the nation’s commonwealth behind bars? Can the war be successfully fought without resorting to impunity? Relying extensively on secondary sources with the aid of descriptive and narrative tools, this study seeks to interrogate the claim of fundamental human rights in the face of wanton looting of the nation’s resources. If, as opined by President Buhari, corruption is a crime against humanity, then it is argued that those who commit such crime should be subjected to penalties prescribed by law. Such crime -as corruption in this study- deprives the citizens of welfare, social amenities and good things of life. In this instance, it also poses threats to national security, having misappropriated funds meant for the war against the Boko Haram terrorism as revealed by the anti-corruption agency in the country. A theoretically-driven investigation, this essay raises some expectations within the context of good governance-propelled anti-corruption crusade, making modest recommendations as to how corruption should be prevented and combated within the confine of rule of law.
Undocumented Migrants on the Northern Border of Mexico: Social Imaginary, and Social Representations
Investigating the undocumented migration phenomenon on Mexico's northern border requires understanding and facing a series of political, economic, and social issues that directly and indirectly affect millions of people –Mexican, Central American and South American people– who are left in a vulnerable situation by failing in their attempt to cross; or because they are deported. This situation gives us spaces for reflection; it is here where this research work gets sense. In the search to understand the particular reality of the undocumented migrant, we can, through drawing as a methodological tool, read and/or interpret the content of the graphic discourse of what it means to migrate. It is important to emphasize that these people are part of social groups that develop within institutionalized discourses. These establish a general framework of understanding and behavior that allows us to be, adapt and understand the present (social imaginary), acquiring a general knowledge that is established and recognized socially. Also, that lets us know how to act and classify our reality individually (social representations). These processes are nourished by repeated and inherited actions (rites), and stories (myths) loaded with symbols and meanings that are reproduced through a discourse that is 'lived' socially. Based on these concepts we can understand and analyze a social phenomenon, in this case, undocumented migration, from its own protagonists, which for this work will be shaped as drawings. Graphic productions made by people who migrate undocumented to the United States where they show what it is like and what they understand about migration. As migratory experiences may vary according to different elements that give meaning to the pilgrimage: geographical features, legal aspects, personal relationships, family, motivations, and experiences of the journey, among others, it is difficult to establish clearly the narratives that give meaning to the journey. This is where the drawing presents us the possibility of understanding how, through the election of different representative figures, through different significant elements, the migrant symbolically builds his or her experience. From this perspective, measuring the symbolic content of the present discourse of the undocumented migrant will help us identify, through their graphic discourses, the significant elements that shape their experience. For this research, 33 undocumented migrants who attempted to cross the northern border of Mexico to the United States participated by putting on a sheet of paper what they now understand about migrating. What we know of this type of migration, thanks to some ethnographic works, is that the experiences and perceptions of men and women who migrate undocumented are different. These experiences have regularly been rescued from oral discourses, where reality is perceived only through the oral world, which in many cases, because of its poverty, is built by the researcher's expertise. Drawing, as a tool for graphic discourse, can help us figure out the migratory experience beyond words.
The Effects of Music on Drivers’ Attention Capacities
Even though listening to music is often reported as one of the most common activities that drivers engage in, as compared with the distractive effects of other internal factors (e.g. talking to passengers and mobile phone use), negative effects of music engagement on drivers’ attention capacities have received little interest from the researchers. Music engagement while driving might cause a cognitive distraction as driving is a complex task demanding high concentration. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of music on drivers’ attention capacities in an experimental setting. In order to examine whether music would have similar effects on driving performance in different situations, we manipulated the music engagement in terms of passively listening to music and singing along with the song and the songs in terms of their pace. Participants (n=48) were randomly assigned to either slow or fast music condition and asked to perform Cognitrone attention test in Vienna Test System while passively listening to music, singing along and in complete silence. Factorial MANCOVA was conducted to identify the effects of music distraction and song pace over participant various reactions (correct, incorrect, or missed) and reactions times with control variables of gender and self-evaluated attention levels using SPSS 18. The results suggested that contrary to our hypothesis there was no significant detrimental effect of music engagement on drivers’ attention capacities. However, there was a significant effect of sorting of the music engagement on both correct, F (5, 29) = 3.50, p < .05, η² = .38 and incorrect reactions, F (5, 29) = 3.33, p < .05, η² = .36. Although participants in slow music condition gave slightly higher amount of correct reactions (M = 61.19, SD = 6.98) than participants in fast music condition (M = 60.78, SD = 6.37), there was no significant effect of song pace on the attention capacities of the drivers. Overall, the results showed that song pace does not seem to affect drivers’ attention capacities, whereas the relationship between attention and different kinds of music engagement while driving needs to be explored further.