International Science Index

International Journal of Business and Economics Engineering

The Impact of Work Stress on Professionals' Life and Health: The Usage of Instant Messaging Applications
Work and family life are the most important areas for men and women today. Every professional is required to meet and fulfill the responsibilities of work and family roles. Although the development and popularity of communication technology bring a lot of benefits, including effective and efficient communication, may also generate conflicts between work and family life. Since mobile devices and the applications of mobile devices, such as instant messages, are ubiquitous, the boundaries of work and family roles are increasingly blurred. Professionals may be in the risk of work over-loading and work-family conflict. This study examines the impact of work stress on professionals’ life and health in the context of instant messaging application of smart phone. This study uses a web-based questionnaire to collect samples. The questionnaires are sent via virtual community sites, instant messaging applications, and e-mail. The study develops and empirically validates a work-family conflict model by integrating the pressure theory and technostress factors. The causal relationship between variables in the research model is tested. In terms of data analysis, Partial Least Square (PLS) in Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) is used for sample analysis and research model testing. The results of this study are as follows. First, both the variables of work-related stress and technological violations positively affect the work-family conflict. Second, both the variables of work-loading and technology-overloading have no effect on work-family conflict. Third, work-family conflict has negative effect on job satisfaction, family satisfaction, physical health, and mental health.
How Social Capital Mediates the Relationships between Interpersonal Interaction and Health: Location-Based Augmented Reality Games
Recently location-based augmented reality games (LBS+AR) have become increasingly popular as a major form of entertainment. Location-based augmented reality games have provided a lot of opportunities for face-to-face interaction among players. Prior studies also indicate that the social side of location-based augmented reality games are one of the major reasons for players to engage in the games. However, the impact of the usage of location-based augmented reality games has not been well explored. The study examines how interpersonal interaction affects social capital and health through playing location-based augmented reality games. The study also investigates how social capital mediates the relationships between interpersonal interaction and health. The study uses survey method to collect data. Six-hundred forty-seven questionnaires are collected. Structural equation modeling is used to investigate the relationships among variables. The causal relationships between variables in the research model are tested. The results of the study indicated that four interpersonal attraction attributes, including ability, proximity, similarity, and familiarity, are identified by ways of factor analysis. Interpersonal attraction is important for location-based augmented reality game-players to develop bonding and bridging social capital. Bonding and bridging social capital have a positive impact on the mental and social health of game-players. The results of the study provide academic and practical implications for future growth of location-based augmented reality games.
The Impact of Socio-Demographic and Motivational Factors on Social Entrepreneurial Intentions
While the formation of general entrepreneurial intentions has been broadly researched, far less is known about factors that influence the intent to start a social enterprise. This paper focuses on the interaction effects of attitude toward entrepreneurship and socio-demographic and motivational factors on social entrepreneurial intentions. Building on data from 610 students, results support that the positive effect of attitude toward entrepreneurship on social entrepreneurial intentions is stronger for women and for sustainability-oriented individuals. The study does not find those interaction effects for general entrepreneurial intentions. Findings further indicate that religiousness does not significantly affect both general and social entrepreneurial intentions. The study offers important implications for research and practice in the field of social entrepreneurship.
Analyzing the Risk Based Approach in General Data Protection Regulation: Basic Challenges Connected with Adapting the Regulation
The adoption of the General Data Protection Regulation, (GDPR) finished the four-year work of the European Commission in this area in the European Union. Considering far-reaching changes, which will be applied by GDPR, the European legislator envisaged two-year transitional period. Member states and companies have to prepare for a new regulation until 25 of May 2018. The idea, which becomes a new look at an attitude to data protection in the European Union is risk-based approach. So far, as a result of implementation of Directive 95/46/WE, in many European countries (including Poland) there have been adopted very particular regulations, specifying technical and organisational security measures e.g. Polish implementing rules indicate even how long password should be. According to the new approach from May 2018, controllers and processors will be obliged to apply security measures adequate to level of risk associated with specific data processing. The risk in GDPR should be interpreted as the likelihood of a breach of the rights and freedoms of the data subject. According to Recital 76, the likelihood and severity of the risk to the rights and freedoms of the data subject should be determined by reference to the nature, scope, context and purposes of the processing. GDPR does not indicate security measures which should be applied – in recitals there are only examples such as anonymization or encryption. It depends on a controller’s decision what type of security measures controller considered as sufficient and he will be responsible if these measures are not sufficient or if his identification of risk level is incorrect. Data protection regulation indicates few levels of risk. Recital 76 indicates risk and high risk, but some lawyers think, that there is one more category – low risk/now risk. Low risk/now risk data processing is a situation when it is unlikely to result in a risk to the rights and freedoms of natural persons. GDPR mentions types of data processing when a controller does not have to evaluate level of risk because it has been classified as „high risk” processing e.g. processing on a large scale of special categories of data, processing with using new technologies. The methodology will include analysis of legal regulations e.g. GDPR, the Polish Act on the Protection of personal data. Moreover: ICO Guidelines and articles concerning risk based approach in GDPR. The main conclusion is that an appropriate risk assessment is a key to keeping data safe and avoiding financial penalties. On the one hand, this approach seems to be more equitable, not only for controllers or processors but also for data subjects, but on the other hand, it increases controllers’ uncertainties in the assessment which could have a direct impact on incorrect data protection and potential responsibility for infringement of regulation.
Development of Mechanisms of Value Creation and Risk Management Organization in the Conditions of Transformation of Economy of Russia
This paper analyzes the features and key aspects of formation and development of risk management systems of the owner of the organization in the Russian economy. The relevance of this study is determined by the radical of changes which exist in the last 25 years in the Russian economy. The economic transformations which took place in Russia at the turn of XX-XXI centuries led to the formation of a class of owners’ associations. The process of interaction of the owner with control system owned by the organization is associated with a significant number of risks and threats. Risk management requires the formation of special systems and mechanisms for the participation of the owner in the process of their identification, analysis and evaluation. In modern conditions the owner of the organization is one of the participants of the management model of the enterprise, which is not directly operated business, and directs top management to the strategic objectives and monitor the situation, asking the landmark action taken by its management decision. New models of analysis, evaluation, organization, regulation and risk management are in the process of functioning of the organizations and entrepreneurs, business consultants and firms providing professional services. These entities control, directly and indirectly, create new control patterns, the owners 'risk, as they have a wide range of research practices, the emergence of different types of business threats, which allows them to redefine the strategic importance and value of formation and development of control systems owners' risk. Based on the analysis of problems of perfection of the architecture of control systems of owners ' risk in domestic and foreign management science, the authors offer their own interpretation of the main directions of this development. The problem of formation and development of the system of risk management and value creation of the organization in modern conditions is relevant not only for top managers and owners of private companies, but also for representatives of the highest levels of the national economy. New models of analysis, evaluation, organization, regulation, risk management and value creation companies are in the process of functioning of the organizations and entrepreneurs, business consultants and firms providing professional services. These entities of control, directly and indirectly, create new control patterns the owners 'risk and value creation of the organization, as they have a wide range of research practices. In the conditions emergence of different types of business threats, its allows to owners to define the strategic importance and direction of formation and development of systems of risk management and value creation of the organization. Based on the analysis of problems of perfection of the architecture of control systems owners ' risk and value creation of the organization in Russian and foreign management science, the authors offer their own interpretation of the main directions of this development.
Makerspaces as Centers of Innovation: An Assessment of the Impact of Technology Incubation Centers in Nigeria
The idea of knowledge sharing facilitated by the internet and complemented by a collaborative offline process in form of shared workshops called Makerspaces has become an attractive economic development agenda worldwide. Towards this end, Nigeria has established a number of Technology Incubation Centers (TICs) across the country with a view to using them as institutional mechanisms for commercializing Research and Development results; thus helping to promote venture creation and economic development. This study thus examines the impact of the nurturing by the TICs, on the performance of selected incubated enterprises that have grown into medium scale businesses in different sectors of the economy. The objective is to determine the extent to which the process of incubation has contributed to their growth in relation to similar businesses that developed outside the TICs. Six enterprises nurtured by TICs and six others outside, these were selected for the study. Data were collected in respect of the twelve enterprises covering their first five years of operation. Performances in terms of annual turnover, market share, and product range were analysed by scatter diagram plotted to show these variables against time and on comparative basis between TIC and non-TIC enterprises. Results showed an initial decline in performance for most of the incubatees in the first two years due to sluggish adjustment to withdrawal of subsidies enjoyed at the TICs. However, four of them were able to catch up with improved performance and surpass their non–TIC counterparts consistently from the third year. Analysis of year on year performance also showed average growth rate of 7% and 5 % respectively for TIC and non–TIC enterprises. The study, therefore, concludes that TICs have great role to play in nurturing new, innovative businesses but sees the need for government to address the provision of critical facilities especially electricity and utilities that constitute critical cost components for businesses. It must also address the issue of investment grants, loans including the development of technology/industrial parks that will serve to boost business survival.
Stage-Gate Based Integrated Project Management Methodology for New Product Development
In order to achieve new product development (NPD) activities on time and within budgetary constraints, the NPD managers need a well-designed methodology. This study intends to create an integrated project management methodology for the ones who focus on new product development projects. In the scope of the study, four different management systems are combined. These systems are called as 'Schedule-oriented Stage-Gate Method, Risk Management, Change Management and Earned Value Management'. New product development term is quite common in many different industries such as defense industry, construction, health care/dental, higher education, fast moving consumer goods, white goods, electronic devices, marketing and advertising and software development. All product manufacturers run against each other’s for introducing a new product to the market. In order to achieve to produce a more competitive product in the market, an optimum project management methodology is chosen, and this methodology is adapted to company culture. The right methodology helps the company to present perfect product to the customers at the right time. The benefits of proposed methodology are discussed as an application by a company. As a result, how the integrated methodology improves the efficiency and how it achieves the success of the project are unfolded.
Investigating the Relationship between the Kuwait Stock Market and Its Marketing Sectors
The main objective of this research is to measure the relationship between the Kuwait stock Exchange (KSE) index and its two marketing sectors after the new market classification. The findings of this research are important for Public economic policy makers as they need to know if the new system (new classification) is efficient and to what level, to monitor the markets and intervene with appropriate measures. The data used are the daily index of the whole Kuwaiti market and the daily closing price, number of deals and volume of shares traded of two marketing sectors (consumer goods and consumer services) for the period from the 13th of May 2012 till the 12th of December 2016. The results indicate a positive direct impact of the closing price, volume and deals indexes of the consumer goods and the consumer services companies on the overall KSE index, volume and deals of the Kuwaiti stock market (KSE).
Recursive Equilibria in a Bewley-Style Economy with Rich Information Structure
This paper proves the existence of recursive equilibria in stochastic economies with heterogeneous agents and incomplete financial markets. We assume a diffuse information structure, modeled as a super-atomless probability space. Agents face two types of uncertainty: the standard exogenous shock and the non-standard noise component. The exogenous shock follows a first order Markov process with a known transition probability. However, the measure space for the noise component is pinned down in equilibrium, i.e., in equilibrium both agents' choices and agents' beliefs about the uncertainty are coordinated. The state space in the recursive equilibrium is limited to the current shock and the beginning-of-period financial wealth. Thanks to the super-atomless probability space we obtain the convexity of the equilibrium payoff correspondence, and we use the Fan-Glicksberg fixed point theorem to get the existence.
Social Media Marketing Efforts to Influence Brand Equity and Consumer Behavior: The Case of Luxury Fashion Brands in Pakistan
Social media is not only acting as a medium of communication; rather it has provided a platform where customers can actually live with the brands they so dearly envy and interact with others with same interest. Organizations are making social media marketing efforts (SMME) to convert this opportunity into a meaningful experience. It may be resembled or considered as an act of branding where the notion is not only to understand the consumer behavior but also developing a strong link with them. Ultimately the quest is to influence and bend it into a mutual benefit of the stakeholders. This study investigates SMME of brands with the help of five dimensions (i.e., entertainment, interaction, trendiness, customization and word of mouth). The study has found that there is no significant impact of SMME as a construct on brand equity and consumer behavior. However, few of the dimensions (i.e. customization and word of mouth), have been found to have influence on brand equity (brand association, brand image) and consumer response (brand preferences).
A Concept Study to Assist Non Profit Organizations to Better Target Developing Countries
The main purpose of this research study is to assist NPO to segment a group of least developing countries better and to optimally target the most needier areas, so that the provided aids make positive and lasting differences. We applied international marketing and strategy approaches to segment a sub-group of candidates among a group of 151 countries identified by the UN-G77 list, and furthermore, we point out the areas of priorities. We use reliable and well-known criteria on the basis of economics, geography, demography and behavioral. These criteria can be objectively estimated and updated so that a follow-up can be performed to measure the outcomes of any program. We selected 12 socio-economic criteria that complement each other: GDP per capita, GDP growth, industry value added, export per capita, fragile state index, corruption perceived index, environment protection index, easy of doing business index, global competitiveness index, internet use, public spending on education, and employment rate. A weight was attributed to each variable to highlight the relative importance of each criterion within the country. Care was taken to collect the most recent available data from trusted well known international organization (IMF, WB, WEF, WTO). Construct of equivalence was carried out to compare same variables across countries. The combination of all these weighted estimated criteria provides us with global index that represents the level of development per country. An absolute index that combines wars and risks was introduced to exclude or include a country on the basis on conflicts and collapsing state. The final step applied to the included countries consist of a benchmarking method to select the segment of countries and the percentile of each criterion. The results of this study allowed us to exclude 16 countries for risks and security. We also excluded 4 countries because they lack reliable and complete data. The other countries were classified per percentile thru their global index, and we identified the needier and the areas where aids are highly required to help any NPO to prioritize the area of implementation. This new concept is based on defined, actionable, accessible and accurate variables by which NPO can implement their program and it can be extended to profit companies to perform their corporate social responsibility acts.
Fighting Counterfeit Alcohol by Means of New Technological Solutions Which Allow for Merchandise Turnover Control and Authenticity Verification: A Case Study
Modern tobacco and alcohol industries are extremely susceptible to counterfeiting. Even though governments impose excise taxes as an attempt to control flows of commodities in those industries at the state level, there are still plenty of occurrences when illegal producers infiltrate the market with substandard quality merchandise. This case study will analyse the techniques that can be used by both the alcohol producers and the state to control the flows of merchandise and prevent unauthorised products’ retail. Three case studies will analyse the problems and solutions of two alcohol manufacturers and one importer. The research will give useful implications for other industries where there is a clear need to control turnover of commodities. Product traceability and security are questions of paramount importance nowadays. Counterfeiters derive huge profits from illegal trade and support illegal activities such as document fraud, corruption, money laundering and other related crimes. The main task of this research is not only to show how businesses, with the use of innovative technologies, can protect their commodities from being counterfeited or repacked, but also to hypothesize on how a system of product protection and traceability could be a useful instrument in confronting global shadow economy and illegal trade.
The Relationship between Renewable Energy, Real Income, Tourism and Air Pollution
One criticism of the energy-growth-environment literature, to the best of our knowledge, is that only a few studies analyze the influence of tourism on CO₂ emissions even though tourism sector is closely related to the environment. The other criticism is the selection of methodology. Panel estimation techniques that fail to consider both heterogeneity and cross-sectional dependence across countries can cause forecasting errors. To fulfill the mentioned gaps in the literature, this study analyzes the impacts of real GDP, renewable energy and tourism on the levels of carbon dioxide (CO₂) emissions for the top 10 most-visited countries around the world. This study focuses on the top 10 touristic (most-visited) countries because they receive about the half of the worldwide tourist arrivals in late years and are among the top ones in 'Renewables Energy Country Attractiveness Index (RECAI)'. By looking at Pesaran’s CD test and average growth rates of variables for each country, we detect the presence of cross-sectional dependence and heterogeneity. Hence, this study uses second generation econometric techniques (cross-sectionally augmented Dickey-Fuller (CADF), and cross-sectionally augmented IPS (CIPS) unit root test, the LM bootstrap cointegration test, and the DOLS and the FMOLS estimators) which are robust to the mentioned issues. Therefore, the reported results become accurate and reliable. It is found that renewable energy mitigates the pollution whereas real GDP and tourism contribute to carbon emissions. Thus, regulatory policies are necessary to increase the awareness of sustainable tourism. In addition, the use of renewable energy and the adoption of clean technologies in tourism sector as well as in producing goods and services play significant roles in reducing the levels of emissions.
Government Intervention in Land Market
In the land market, there are two kinds of government intervention. First one is the control of development and second is the supply of land. In the both intervention Government has a lot of benefits. In development control the government designation of conservation areas and the effects of growth controls which may increase the price of land. On other hand Government also apply charge fee on land. The second type of intervention is to increase the supply of land, either by direct action or indirect action, as in the Pakistan, by obligatory purchase or important domain.
Partner Selection in International Strategic Alliances: The Case of the Information Industry
This study analyzes international strategic alliances in the information industry. The purpose of this study is to clarify the strategic intention of an international alliance. Second, it investigates the influence of differences in the target markets of partner companies on alliances. Using an international strategy theory approach to analyze the global strategies of global companies, the study compares a database business and an electronic publishing business. In particular, these cases emphasized factors attributable to 'people' and 'learning', reliability and communication between organizations and the evolution of the IT infrastructure. The theory evolved in this study validates the effectiveness of these strategies.
User Acceptance Criteria for Digital Libraries
The Internet and digital publication technologies have brought dramatic impacts on how people collect, organize, disseminate, access, store, and use information. More and more governments, schools, and organizations spent huge funds to develop digital libraries. A digital library can be regarded as a web extension of traditional physically libraries. People can search diverse publications, find out the position of knowledge resources, and borrow or buy publications through digital libraries. People can gain knowledge and students or employees can finish their reports by using digital libraries. Since the considerable funds and energy have been invested in implementing digital libraries, it is important to understand the evaluative criteria from the users’ viewpoint in order to enhance user acceptance. This study develops a list of user acceptance criteria for digital libraries. An initial criteria list was developed based on some previously validated instruments related to digital libraries. Data were collected from user experiences of digital libraries. The exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis were adopted to purify the criteria list. The reliabilities and validities were tested. After validating the criteria list, a user survey was conducted to collect the comparative importance of criteria. The analytic hierarchy process (AHP) method was utilized to derive the importance of each criterion. The results of this study contribute to an e understanding of the criteria and relative importance that users evaluate for digital libraries.
Casual Effects of Informal Care and Health on Falls and Other Accidents among the Elderly Population in China
This article analyzes the causal effects of informal care, mental health, and physical health on falls and other accidents (e.g. traffic accidents) among elderly people. To purge potential reversal causal effects, e.g., past accidents induce more future informal care, we use two-stage least squares to identify the impacts. By using longitudinal data from a representative national China Health and retirement longitudinal study of people aged 45 and older in China, our findings indicate that informal care decreases while poor health conditions increase the occurrence of accidents. We also find heterogeneous impacts on the occurrence of accidents, varying by gender, urban status, and past accident history. Our findings suggest the following three policy implications. First, policy makers who aim to decrease accidents should take informal care to elders into account. Second, ease of birth policy and postponed retirement policy are urgent to meet the demand of informal care. Third, medical policies should attach great importance to not only physical health but also mental health of elderly parents especially for older people with accident history.
The Impact of Informal Care on Health Behavior among Older People with Chronic Diseases: A Study in China Using Propensity Score Matching
Improvement of health behavior among people with chronic diseases is vital for increasing longevity and enhancing quality of life. This paper researched the causal effects of informal care on the compliance with doctor’s health advices – smoking control, dietetic regulation, weight control and keep exercising – among older people with chronic diseases in China, which is facing the challenge of aging. We addressed the selection bias by using propensity score matching in the estimation process. We used the 2011-2012 national baseline data of the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study. Our results showed informal care can help improve health behavior of older people. First, informal care improved the compliance of smoking controls: whether smoke, frequency of smoking, and the time lag between wake up and the first cigarette was all lower for these older people with informal care; Second, for dietetic regulation, older people with informal care had more meals every day than older people without informal care; Third, three variables: BMI, whether gain weight and whether lose weight were used to measure the outcome of weight control. There were no significant difference between group with informal care and that without for BMI and the possibility of losing weight. Older people with informal care had lower possibility of gain weight than that without; Last, for the advice of keeping exercising, informal care increased the probability of walking exercise, however, the difference between groups for moderate and vigorous exercise were not significant. Our results indicate policy makers who aim to decrease accidents should take informal care to elders into account and provide an appropriate policy to meet the demand of informal care. Our birth policy and postponed retirement policy may decrease the informal caregiving hours, so adjustments of these policies are important and urgent to meet the current situation of aged tendency of population. In addition, government could give more support to develop organizations to provide formal care, such as nursing home. We infer that formal care is also useful for health behavior improvements.
A Markov Model for the Elderly Disability Transition and Related Factors in China
Background: As one of typical case for the developing countries who are stepping into the aging times globally, more and more older people in China might face the problem of which they could not maintain normal life due to the functional disability. While the government take efforts to build long-term care system and further carry out related policies for the core concept, there is still lack of strong evidence to evaluating the profile of disability states in the elderly population and its transition rate. It has been proved that disability is a dynamic condition of the person rather than irreversible so it means possible to intervene timely on them who might be in a risk of severe disability. Objective: The aim of this study was to depict the picture of the disability transferring status of the older people in China, and then find out individual characteristics that change the state of disability to provide theory basis for disability prevention and early intervention among elderly people. Methods: Data for this study came from the 2011 baseline survey and the 2013 follow-up survey of the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS). Normal ADL function, 1~2 ADLs disability,3 or above ADLs disability and death were defined from state 1 to state 4. Multi-state Markov model was applied and the four-state homogeneous model with discrete states and discrete times from two visits follow-up data was constructed to explore factors for various progressive stages. We modeled the effect of explanatory variables on the rates of transition by using a proportional intensities model with covariate, such as gender. Result: In the total sample, state 2 constituent ratio is nearly about 17.0%, while state 3 proportion is blow the former, accounting for 8.5%. Moreover, ADL disability statistics difference is not obvious between two years. About half of the state 2 in 2011 improved to become normal in 2013 even though they get elder. However, state 3 transferred into the proportion of death increased obviously, closed to the proportion back to state 2 or normal functions. From the estimated intensities, we see the older people are eleven times as likely to develop at 1~2 ADLs disability than dying. After disability onset (state 2), progression to state 3 is 30% more likely than recovery. Once in state 3, a mean of 0.76 years is spent before death or recovery. In this model, a typical person in state 2 has a probability of 0.5 of disability-free one year from now while the moderate disabled or above has a probability of 0.14 being dead. Conclusion: On the long-term care cost considerations, preventive programs for delay the disability progression of the elderly could be adopted based on the current disabled state and main factors of each stage. And in general terms, those focusing elderly individuals who are moderate or above disabled should go first.
Leveraging on Application of Customer Relationship Management Strategy as Business Driving Force: A Case Study of Major Industries
Customer relationship management is a business strategy that is centred on the idea that ‘Customer is the driving force of any business’ i.e. Customer is placed in a central position in any business. However, this belief coupled with the advancement in information technology in the past twenty years has experienced a change. In any form of business today it can be concluded that customers are the modern dictators to whom the industry always adjusts its business operations due to the increase in availability of information, intense market competition and ever growing negotiating ideas of customers in the process of buying and selling. The most vital role of any organization is to satisfy or meet customer’s needs and demands, which eventually determines customer’s long-term value to the industry. Therefore, this paper analyses and describes the application of customer relationship management operational strategies in some of the major industries in business. Both developed and up-coming companies nowadays value the quality of customer services and client’s loyalty, they also recognize the customers that are not very sensitive when it comes to changes in price and thereby realize that attracting new customers is more tasking and expensive than retaining the existing customers. However, research shows that several factors have recently amounts to the sudden rise in the execution of CRM strategies in the marketplace, such as a diverted attention of some organization towards integrating ideas in retaining existing customers rather than attracting new one, gathering data about customers through the use of internal database system and acquiring of external syndicate data, also exponential increase in technological intelligence. Apparently, with this development in business operations, CRM research in Academia remain nascent; hence this paper gives detailed critical analysis of the recent advancement in the use of CRM and key research opportunities for future development in using the implementation of CRM as a determinant factor for successful business optimization.
Resource Windfalls and the Victory of Distributive against Productive Policies
The huge popularity of distributive policies in many resource abundant countries coincided with the rise in oil and gas prices that started in 2004. Following the sharp recent price decrease, however, this popularity is becoming fragile and a tendency is increasing toward more productive policies. Using a theoretical model, this paper studies the optimal composition of public spending and demonstrates that, for sufficiently low amount of any exogenous revenue, e.g. resource revenue, investing all revenue in productive public goods is preferred by the voters. On the other hand, if resource revenue is sufficiently high, voters opt for more distributive policies as the amount of resource revenue increases. Furthermore, the initial productivity of the resource abundant economy plays an important role in determining the composition of public spending preferred by the individuals. If the initial level of productivity in a country is too low or too high, people may prefer distributive policies even for a low amount of resource revenue. Yet there is an important difference. Resource revenue eradicates the individuals' incentive to work in countries with low initial productivity while in highly productive countries, individuals always prefer to work.
Tax Competition and Partial Tax Coordination under Fiscal Decentralization
This article analyzes the conditions where decentralization and partial tax harmonization in a coalition of asymmetric jurisdictions plays a role in the fight of fiscal competition (i.e. the race to bottom). Starting from a centralized economies, we use the ZM-W model to analyze the fiscal competition and coordination among three countries. We find that the asymmetry of jurisdictions facilitates partial tax harmonization between jurisdictions when these asymmetries are not too large. Furthermore, when the asymmetries are large enough, the level of labor tax plays an important role in the decision of decentralize capital tax. Accordingly, decentralization is achievable when labor tax is low. This result indicates that decentralization and partial tax harmonization between jurisdictions can be possible results in order to fight the negative externalities from fiscal competition, and more in the European Union countries where the asymmetries are substantial.
The Effectiveness of the South African Government Theory of Expanded Public Works Program: Infrastructure
The Expanded Public Works Program (EPWP) is an instrument that the South African Government uses to reduce unemployment and poverty and also stimulate economic growth. However, due to the limited budget and programs in the EPWP, the program has had challenges in reducing unemployment, poverty and stimulating economic growth. The EPWP Vuk’uphile program had positive outcomes in developing Black emerging contractors, in order for them to participate in the main stream economy far better than when the EPWP program was not introduced. The Skills component of the program particularly the EPWP Infrastructure, which is the most funded program under EPWP has had limited success in transferring appropriate skills to ensure labour participants can penetrate the labour market after participating in the EPWP. Education and skills are important attributes that can contribute to labour absorption, however, the EPWP particularly the infrastructure program needs to strengthen skills development over a longer period of time suggested a year with multi skills relevant to the labour market. Longer and more sustained employment provides a safety net and reduces poverty better that short term employment. The EPWP program can be expanded in the infrastructure sector, focusing on rural infrastructure, agricultural infrastructure, infrastructure related components like property, ownership, management, and other services. These can stimulate the Economic sector Infrastructure of EPWP, offer longer term and more sustained employment and rural enterprise development and further employment. The Expanded Public Works Program (EPWP) is an instrument that the South African Government uses to reduce unemployment and poverty and also stimulate economic growth. However, due to the limited budget and programs in the EPWP, the program has had challenges in reducing unemployment, poverty and stimulating economic growth. The EPWP Vuk’uphile program has had positive outcomes in developing Black emerging contractors, in order for them to participate in the main stream economy far better than when the EPWP program was not introduced. The Skills component of the program particularly the EPWP Infrastructure, which is the most funded program under EPWP has had limited success in transferring appropriate skills to ensure labour participants are able to penetrate the labour market after participating in the EPWP. Education and skills are important attributes that can contribute to labour absorption, however, the EPWP particularly the infrastructure program needs to strengthen skills development over a longer period of time suggested a year with multi skills relevant to the labour market. Longer and more sustained employment provides a safety net and reduces poverty better that short term employment. The EPWP program can be expanded in the infrastructure sector, focusing on rural infrastructure, agricultural infrastructure, infrastructure related components like property, ownership, management, and other services. These can stimulate the Economic sector Infrastructure of EPWP, offer longer term and more sustained employment and rural enterprise development and further employment.
The Effect of Public Debt on the Economic Growth and Development in Nigeria
This paper examines the influence of public debts (external and internal) on economic growth and development in Nigeria from (1980-2015). The study uses aggregate GDP as a proxy for economic growth, per capital income as a proxy for standard of living and Government expenditure on health as a proxy for human capital development, while Foreign Direct Investment, Unemployment rate, and Oil revenue were used as control variables. The study made use of ex-post facto research design with the data extracted from the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) Statistical Bulletin and the World Bank database. It adopted a multiple regression analysis of the ordinary least square (OLS) method with the help of E-View version 3.0. The results revealed that external debt has a negative and insignificant effect on GDP, per capital income and human capital development. The study concluded that external debts were being channeled to meet the recurrent expenditures of the nation’s economy at the expense of productive investment that could stimulate growth and poverty alleviation. It, however, recommended that government should ensure that the bulk of the total borrowings are mostly sourced from within the domestic economy so that the repayment of the principal and interest will serve as a crowd in-effect rather that crowd out-effect which in turn further accelerates the country’s economic growth and development.
The Global Language Teaching Spots to Accelerate Globalization and Equitable Economic Development Worldwide
The basis of this research is to create an international business project by developing an area in every country which focused on global language teaching to accelerate huge project of internationalization for mankind better with equity. It is to make an ease, learning more effective and efficient as well as economic development significantly at the place. Some have attempted to establish it, but could have not succeeded. This study uses stratified random sampling method to determine respondents. It is caused by population coming from around of Indonesia which is heterogeneity. Above all, researcher has already known well the spot including the mapping of students and societies, over 5-year, from beginning studying English (2011) until teaching English (2015). This quantitative research is able to analyze the vital factor of successful Language Village at Pare, Kediri, East Java, Indonesia which has never been obtained anywhere. This project provides valuable information regarding management used by the Language Village. Overall approach depicts vigorous marketing strategy and dedication blended. This will allow for more individual consideration of economist and may direct future research on the uniqueness of the Language Village to ascertain more profound understanding of the village which succeeds inviting people from other places to come, beside formal management and marketing.
Employability Skills: The Route to Achieve Demographic Dividend in India
The demographic dividend of India will last for thirty years from now. However, reduction in birth rate, an increase in working population, improvements in medicine and better health practices lead to an ever-expanding elderly population, bringing additional burden to the economy and putting an end to the demographic dividend. To reap the dividend India needs to train the youth for employability. The need of the hour is to improve their life skills which lead the youth to become industrious and have continuous employment. The study will be conducted in perceiving the skill gaps that exist in commerce students for employability. The analysis results indicate the relation between the core study and the right skills for the workforce, with the steps that are taken to open the window for the demographic dividend.
Essentiality of Core Strategic Vision in Continuous Cost Reduction Management
Many markets are maturing, consumer buying powers are weakening and customer preferences change rapidly. To survive, many adopt fast paced continuous cost reduction and competitive pricing to remain relevance. Marketers desire to push for more sales to increase revenues have intensified competitions at time cannibalize the product and market. The amazing technologies changes have created both hope and despair to the industries. The pressure to constantly reduce cost, on the one hand, create and market new products in cheaper prices and shorter life cycles, on the other has become a continuous endeavour. The twin trends appear irreconcilable. Can core strategic vision provides and adapts new directions in continuous cost reduction? This study investigates core strategic vision able to meet this need, for firms to survive and stay profitable. Under current uncertainty market, are firms falling back on their core strategic visions to take them out of the unfavourable positions?
Contractual Risk Transfer in Islamic Home Financing: Analysis in Bank Malaysia
Risk management has implications on pricing, governance arrangements, business practices and strategy. Nowadays, home financing contract offers more in the risk transfer form to increase bank profit. This is parallel with Islamic jurisprudence method al-Kharaj bi al-thaman (gain accompanies liability for loss) and al-ghurm bil ghunm (gain is justified with risk) that determine the matching between risk transfer and returns. Malaysian financing trend is to buy house. Besides, exists transparency lacking risk transfer issues to the clients because of not been informed clearly. Terms and conditions of each financing also do not reflect clearly that the risk has been transferred to the client, justifying a determination price been made. The assumption on risk occurrence is also inaccurate as each risk is different with the type of financing contract. This makes the Islamic Financial Services Act 2013 in providing standards that transparent and consistent can be used by Islamic financial institution less effective. This study examines how far the level of the risk and obligation incurred by bank and client under various Islamic home financing contract. This research is qualitative by using two methods, document analysis, and semi-structured interviews. Document analysis from literature review to identify profile, themes and risk transfer element in home financing from Islamic jurisprudence perspective. This study finds that need to create a risk transfer parameter by banks which are consistent with risk transfer theory according to Islamic jurisprudence. This study has potential to assist the authority in Islamic finance such as The Central Bank of Malaysia (Bank Negara Malaysia) in regulating Islamic banking industry so that the risk transfer valuation in home financing contract based on home financing good practice and determined risk limits.
eTransformation Framework for the Cognitive Systems
Digital systems are in the cognitive wave of the eTransformations and are now extensively aimed at meeting the individuals’ demands, both those of customers requiring services and those of service providers. It is also apparent that successful future systems will not just simply open doors to the traditional owners/users to offer and receive services such as Uber for example does today, but will in the future require more customized and cognitively enabled infrastructures that will be responsive to the system user’s needs. To be able to identify what is required for such systems, this research reviews the historical and the current effects of the eTransformation process by studying: 1. eTransitions of company websites and mobile applications, 2. Emergence of new sheared economy business models as Uber and, 3. New requirements for demand driven, cognitive systems capable of learning and just in time decision making. Based on the analysis, this study proposes a Cognitive eTransformation Framework capable of guiding implementations of new responsive and user aware systems.
Effects of Service Quality Management Capability and Business Alliance Effectiveness on Performance of Tourist Agency Business in Thailand: The Moderating Role of Organizational Climate
The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between effects of service quality management capability and business alliance effectiveness on the performance of tourist agency business in Thailand: The moderating role of organizational climate. A survey was used as a research instrument and was given to the owner/managers of tourist agency business in Thailand. The model is tested using the data collected from 400 tourist agency business in Thailand. The results indicate that service quality management capability have the positive influence on business alliance effectiveness and performance. Trust, commitment, and cooperation are the antecedents that have a positive effect on the performance, and the results show non-significant when it is moderated by Organizational climate. Thus, contributions and suggestions are also provided for further research.